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Section 1


PREMISES, DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS, PERSPECTIVES ON AGRO-FOOD TRADE, ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT, EFFECTS

1

Anca DACHIN

The influence of predominantly rural areas on the development path of Central and East- European Regions with structural similarity

2

Alexandru STRATAN, Eugenia LUCASENCO, Sergiu TIRIGAN

Moldo-Romanian trade with agri-food products: retrospective and perspectives

3

Camelia GAVRILESCU

An analysis of the trade balance for the main agri-food products

4

Jonel SUBIĆ, Svetlana ROLJEVIĆ NIKOLIĆ, Zoran SIMONOVIĆ

Evaluation of economic sustainability ecological production vegetables on family farms in Serbia

5

Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA, Nikola METODIEV

Analysis of incoming and outgoing cash flows of dairy sheep breeding farms in Bulgaria

6

Aurel LUP

Agricultural production zoning. Historical and current issues

7

Cristian MERCE, Manea DRĂGHICI, Emilian MERCE, Raluca-Alexandra NECULA

Comparative study on the use of statistical methods for the distribution of autocorrelation to any influence factor

8

Mihai BERCA, Valentina - Ofelia ROBESCU, Mircea DUICĂ, Roxana HOROIAŞ

Nitrogen fertilizers and bioeconomic agriculture – example on wheat

9

Mohammed DHARY YOUSIF

Effect of deferent levels of fertilizer 9DAP) in content of plant leaves from phenol compounds and (NPK)

10

Tamara LEAH

Ecological and geochemical assessment of alluvial soils in the medial Dniester area

TAMARA LEAH

posted Mar 9, 2020, 11:07 PM by WEB MASTER

ECOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALLUVIAL SOILS IN THE MEDIAL DNIESTER AREA

Abstract: The alluvial soils are characterized by a very large variation in the physical, chemical and geochemical properties as a result of the different pedogenesis conditions, the zonal climate, the origin of the river deposits, their texture and composition, the depth and mineralization of the groundwater. The main characteristic of the heavy metal content in the arable alluvial soil profile is the relatively high content of the total and mobile forms in the humiferous horizon (0-23 cm) due to their biogenic accumulation. On the other hand, although a stratification of the alluvial soil profile persists, there is a general pattern of heavy metal distribution reflected by reduction of Mn, Cu, Pb, Ni, an increase Zn, Co, Cr, Cd and Fe content - from top to bottom of profile, with 3 accumulation maxima: biogenic, gleyic and carbonatic barriers. The typical arable alluvial soils are not polluted with heavy metals: their concentration in the soil does not exceed the maximum admissible limits for soils of Moldova.

Keywords: Alluvial soil, Biogeochemical barrier, Heavy metals, Lower Dniester.

JEL Classification: Q: Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics; Q2: Renewable Resources and Conservation; Q24: Land

MOHAMMED DHARY YOUSIF

posted Mar 9, 2020, 11:06 PM by WEB MASTER

EFFECT OF DEFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZER 9DAP) IN CONTENT OF PLANT LEAVES FROM PHENOL COMPOUNDS AND (NPK)

Abstract: Carried out the experiment in the Republic of Iraq in the capital Baghdad and in the Dora district to study the effect of different levels of fertilizer (DAP) in content of  plant leaves(Calotropis procera) in terms of phenolic compounds, as well as content (N, P, K), in pots where the soil used sandy silt collected from the shoulder of the Tigris River where contained soil 750g/ kg sand, 200 g/kg Clays, 50 g/ kg   clay, average virtual soil density 1.1 Mega grams/ m³,the average electrical conductivity (Ec) 1.8 ds/m, the degree of interaction (pH) 7.2, the concentration of nitrogen-ready 20 mg/kg ,soil and phosphorus ready mg /kg 15 and 145 ready-potassium mg /kg soil .the experiment included add four levels (100  . 200 . 300 . 400 ) kg / h of DAP fertilizer   (18:46 N: P) to the publican seedlings which are Elected age of one year and using fully randomized design (CRD) and in three replications. in dated 10/15/2014. After the sample was taken leaves of the plant to assess the content of phenolic compounds (Gallic acid , Vanillic acid, Epicatechin , P- coumaric , Ferulic acid ,Queretin-3-ß-D- glucoside  , Rutin)as well as  total chlorophyll and (N, P, K).Results of statistical analysis showed the least significant difference (LSD) at a level of 5% higher than the level of fertilization 400 kg DAP /h on the rest of the levels followed by a level 300 and level 200.Where the increase in the rates of securities content of phenolic compounds, especially Epicatechin (48.72, 87.20, 137.18%) compared to the first level of 100 kg DAP / h sequentially with significant differences. The percentage increase in the stock of the content of p- coumaric (43.82, 85.39 and 92.13) % to the level of the second, third and fourth sequentially compared to the first level. As for (Ferulic acid, Queretin - 3β-D-glycoside, Rutin and Chlorophyll) in fourth level of 400 kg DAP /h has achieved the highest concentration content where the percentage increase (1050, 86, 164.81 and 40.47) % sequentially compared to the first level 100 kg DAP /h. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, where the focus accounted for an increase of (80.99 and 155.00 and 65.38%) compared to the first level and sequentially. The results show that the plant () showed a steady and flexible response to the levels of fertilizer DAP, Increase the speed of absorption of key nutrients (N and P), to increase the readiness of those elements in the soil solution, increasing the shoot and root. Increase the efficiency of absorption of the major key elements (K, P, N) content and increase the stock of vehicles and phenolic acids and thus increase in the proportion of plant chlorophyll content.

 Keywords: Calotropis procera, phenolic compounds, dap fertilizer (N, P, K).

 JEL Classification: Q3

MIHAI BERCA, VALENTINA-OFELIA ROBESCU, MIRCEA DUICĂ, ROXANA HOROIAŞ

posted Mar 9, 2020, 11:05 PM by WEB MASTER

NITROGEN FERTILIZERS AND BIOECONOMIC AGRICULTURE - EXAMPLE ON WHEAT

Abstract: All the scenarios and models made up by the most titled scientists in biology, agriculture, geophysics, and human health prove that the four main resources of the existence of the biosphere are so polluted that it is a matter of time until a major collapse of human existence occurs. The problem is not that it will occur, but when it will occur, in what form and how great the losses will be. Among the many factors to be applied in agriculture in order to get food, the nitrogen fertilizers play an important part. Nitrogen fertilizer application has increased crop production by about 3-4 times, but at the same time it has reduced the content of heteropoly condensate humus by 3-4 times, especially in the countries of the Eastern Europe. Both European and world specialists have found that there is a large difference in the environmental (qualitative) behaviour between the two major fertilizers applied - ammonium nitrate and urea. The research carried out by us in the experimental field of Poroschia (Teleorman County) between 2014 and 2016 showed a significant difference in the organic and productive-qualitative behaviour in favour of the ammonium nitrate. In wheat crops, the ammonium nitrate is superior to urea, at the same applied dose, averaging 3.5-8.0 q/ha and with a protein content of 0.3-1.5%. The degree of absorption of ammonium nitrate is about 15-20% higher than that of urea. The volatilization degree of the two products is different, with a difference of 15-20% in favour of urea, which at the same time pollutes the air by about 15 t CO2/ha and which leads to the warming of the atmosphere. Starting from here, we consider that ammonium nitrate, although not circumscribed to bioeconomic agriculture, is much closer to it than urea.

 

Keywords: nitrogen fertilizers, wheat, bioeconomic models, bioeconomic agriculture

Classification JEL: Q10, Q16, Q57

CRISTIAN MERCE, MANEA DRĂGHICI, EMILIAN MERCE, RALUCA-ALEXANDRA NECULA

posted Mar 9, 2020, 11:03 PM by WEB MASTER

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF STATISTICAL METHODS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOCORRELATION TO ANY INFLUENCE FACTOR

Abstract: Three methods reported in the literature are subject to comparative analysis in the present paper:

1.   Classic method  [1,5];

2.   Merce E., Merce C.C. Method[2,3];

3.   Merce E., at al Method[4];

It is shown that in the case of the first two methods mentioned above, the attempts to distribute interactions on influence factors have as a prerequisite the determination of the simple correlation coefficients and of the partial correlation coefficients, the methods being of this particularly laborious nature. With obvious computational facilities, compared to the first two methods, the authors propose the use of a new method based on the principle of proportional distribution of autocorrelation with the coefficients of simple determination, and the following five steps are being performed: 1) Calculation of multiple correlation coefficient and simple correlation coefficients using the Regression function of the Microsoft Excel Data Analysis component; 2) The recording of the multiple correlation coefficient and the simple correlation coefficients in the Excel table used for this purpose; 3) Calculating the coefficients of the simple determination and the multiplication factor; 4) Sum of coefficients of simple determination; 5) Calculating the proportions of simple determinations, considering their sum equal to 100; 6) Determination of the influence of each factor as a product between multiple determinations and the proportion of simple determinations. Note that the last four steps in the Excel work table are generated instantly after the first two steps.

Keywords: autocorrelation, comparative analysis methods, distribution of autocorrelation on each method, method and program.

JEL Classification: C36

AUREL LUP

posted Mar 9, 2020, 11:01 PM by WEB MASTER

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ZONING. HISTORICAL AND CURRENT ISSUES

Abstract: This paper brings back to the specialized research circuit, as well as to the political decision makers’ attention the zoning work of agricultural production by counties, namely over the period 1980-1985-1990. The author considers it the most important research work carried out by the Institute of Agricultural Economics within the Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences. In the paper are established, according to the territorial profile at the county level, the following: the area of agricultural land by uses, the quality of the land expressed by the natural bonitation grades, their enhancement taking into account the qualitative evolution of the production technologies, the assurance of the main factors of production, but especially the realization in stages of land reclamation works.  The following are also established: the geographical space of each crop or species of animals, the average yields per hectare and per head of livestock. The synthesis consists of a number of 20 macro zones hierarchized according to importance: national, county, specialized areas. The paper includes numerous tables and maps. It is similar to works from almost every country in the world. It is drawn up in agreement with the political decision makers, being an event which seems unique in the economic history of Romania. 

Key-words: agriculture, zoning, macro zone, land reclamation

JEL Classification: Q15; Q16; Q18


TSVETANA HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA, NIKOLA METODIEV

posted Mar 9, 2020, 10:59 PM by WEB MASTER

ANALYSIS OF INCOMING AND OUTGOING CASH FLOWS OF DAIRY SHEEP BREEDING FARMS IN BULGARIA

Summary: The aim of the study is to explore cash flow categories (incoming, outgoing and net cash flow per ewe), generated by dairy sheep breeding farms in Bulgaria. The study was carried out with 3 conventional dairy sheep farms (511 ewes totally, all from the breed – Synthetic Population Bulgarian Milk), in which extensive farming system was applied. The information was collected through a questionnaire from farm owners in 2016.  The study found that all three farms have positive net cash flow (735 EUR, 6415 EUR, and 32034 EUR). The cash flows of farms vary according to the specifics of their activity, but the largest share of the outgoing cash flows have that for labour payments (from 30.8% to 50.5%) and for the purchase of forages (from 10.8% to 47.3%). Fuel costs vary considerably (from 1.8% to 7.2%). From the incoming cash flows, substantial portion took the sales of sheep milk (from 32% to 54.8%) and lambs (from 23.6% to 38.4%), followed by subsidies (from 17% to 27.7%). The net cash flow per ewe greatly varied and took values of 7 EUR, 77 EUR, and 99 EUR, meaning that the profitable operation of each farm depends on local factors of the natural environment, business conditions and management decisions of the farm owners. It is necessary for the farmers to take precautions to keep lambs alive and healthy in order to maximize the financial effectiveness of the farm, as well as to sell milk at better price.

Keywords: dairy sheep farms, sales, cash flows, Bulgaria

JEL Classification: Q12


JONEL SUBIĆ, SVETLANA ROLJEVIĆ NIKOLIĆ, ZORAN SIMONOVIĆ

posted Mar 9, 2020, 10:58 PM by WEB MASTER

EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTION VEGETABLES ON FAMILY FARMS IN SERBIA

Abstract: The tendency of conventional agriculture to achieve high yields has imposed a need for specialization of production and intensive application of mechanization, irrigation, pesticides, mineral fertilizers and new plant varieties. In this way, on the one hand, the profit of farmers is significantly increasing, while on the other hand serious harmful consequences are caused to the environment. Therefore, in recent decades developed different models of sustainable agriculture, which are environmentally friendly and socially just, but they are often criticized that was not economically payable as conventional production method. The research was conducted in the period from January to October 2018, following the production of tomatoes, cv. Big beef, in a greenhouse, on two family farms. The paper presents a gross margin of conventional and ecological production of tomatoes, then gives an overview of the structure of the variable costs and the critical value of production, as well as the way of changing the gross margin due to the growth of variable costs and / or decline in yields and product prices. The results of the research showed that the total value of environmentally friendly production of tomatoes in the greenhouse increased by 29.6% compared to conventional production of the same crop. However, costs of laboratory analyzes of the quality of soil, irrigation water and fruits, as well as labor costs significantly increase the amount of variable costs in ecological production, which results in lower gross margin for 13.5% compared to conventional cultivation practices. It was also found that the decline in production value has a greater impact on the gross margin than the increase in the cost of the production both in environmentally friendly and conventional agriculture.

Keywords: ecological production, economic sustainability, calculation of production costs, gross margin

Classification JEL: Q12, Q15, Q16

CAMELIA GAVRILESCU

posted Mar 9, 2020, 10:56 PM by WEB MASTER

AN ANALYSIS OF THE TRADE BALANCE FOR THE MAIN AGRI-FOOD PRODUCTS

Abstract: The Romanian agri-food trade has registered a permanent deficit during the last three decades (with a brief exception period, 2013-2014). The deficit was deepened by the negative trade balance with the EU countries, but since 2010, the deficit has been partially offset by the trade surplus with the non-EU countries. The paper analyzes the evolution of the agro-food trade balance detailed by the main product groups, and the results highlight the product groups that were the main contributors to the deficit and have remained over time the main import goods (fruits, meat, vegetables, milk and dairy products), those with balances shifting from negative to positive depending on the economic situation (poultry, eggs), as well as those with a permanent positive balance (cereals, oilseeds). The imports of pork, apples and tomatoes are analyzed in detail, in terms of the quantity, value and countries of origin of the imports.

Keywords: agri-food trade deficit, pork, apples, tomatoes

JEL Classification: F14, Q17

ALEXANDRU STRATAN, EUGENIA LUCASENCO, SERGIU TIRIGAN

posted Mar 9, 2020, 10:54 PM by WEB MASTER

MOLDO-ROMANIAN TRADE WITH AGRI-FOOD PRODUCTS: RETROSPECTIVE AND PERSPECTIVES


Abstract: The paper aims to present the trade relations with agri-food products between the Republic of Moldova and Romania during the period 2000 – 2018. Being neighbouring countries, connected not only through the existing border, but also through common historical aspect, the trade with agri-food products is of particular importance for both of countries.  Analysis of the trade is carried out by product types, presented in 3 periods: 2000 – 2006, 2007 – 2014 when Romania became an EU member state and 2015 – 2018, after entering into force of DCFTA. Research methods are based on statistical analysis, using the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova and UN Comtrade database and Ministry of Economy and Infrastructure of the Republic of Moldova. Overall, there is a growing trend in export and import increase between the countries, while Romania continues to be the top-partner for Moldovan export of agri-food products. The paper suggests further proposals for cooperation between the countries, with a focus on increasing export values by the both sides.

Keywords: trade, agri-food products, Republic of Moldova, Romania, European Union

Jel Classification: Q17

Anca DACHIN

posted Mar 9, 2020, 10:51 PM by WEB MASTER

THE INFLUENCE OF PREDOMINANTLY RURAL AREAS ON THE DEVELOPMENT PATH OF CENTRAL AND EAST-EUROPEAN REGIONS WITH STRUCTURAL SIMILARITY

Abstract: The real convergence process within the European Union at regional level is the main goal of the cohesion policy. Less developed regions belong mainly to Central and East European countries and aim at catching-up with other EU regions. According to Eurostat, Romania has 28 predominantly rural NUTS3 areas out of 42, situation that is usually associated with economic lagging behind.  The paper focuses on the analysis of seven NUTS2 regions in Romania (excluding Bucharest-Ilfov) compared to other EU regions with structural similarity belonging to Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia. All these regions have improved their GDP/capita in the period 2007-2017, but most of them still have about 30-50% of the EU28 average. The purpose of the paper is to determine, by using the descriptive statistical analysis, to what extent the predominantly rural regions contributed to the slow rate of economic development at NUTS2 level in the last decade

 Keywords: regional convergence, predominantly rural regions, structural similarity, economic development

 JEL Classification: O18, R11, R23


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